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Gallbladder Cancer – Overview

Gallbladder cancer is one of the rare types of cancers. This cancer develops mainly in the gallbladder. The gallbladder is a small pear-shaped organ located in the right side of the lower abdomen beneath the liver and is responsible for storing bile, the digestive juice from the liver.

Gallbladder cancer can be effectively treated when it is detected and diagnosed in its earliest stages. As the stage of the gallbladder cancer progresses, the treatment becomes more extensive.

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Symptoms

Gallbladder cancer is often not detected due to the absence of any noticeable symptoms; however, most of the time, gallbladder cancer shows certain symptoms, such as:

  • Abdominal ache (especially on the right-hand side)
  • Itchiness
  • Abdominal bloating
  • Loss of appetite
  • Fever
  • Unwanted weight loss
  • Nausea
  • Jaundice symptoms (yellowing of the whites of the eyes and the skin)

It is advisable to seek expert medical consultation in case any of these symptoms are seen.

Causes

The exact cause for the development of gallbladder cancer is not yet known. However, the mutation in the DNA of the tissue cells of the gallbladder results in abnormal rate and manner of growth. This excessive rate of growth of gallbladder cancer cells forms a tumor (mass) eventually. If left untreated, this cancer can spread from the gallbladder to other surrounding parts of the body.

Stages

Gallbladder cancer is classified into several stages, mainly depending on the extent of spread of the cancer. The doctor will perform several tests to determine the stage of the gallbladder cancer, including:

  • Exploratory surgery – Performed using minimally invasive surgical techniques to view the inside of the abdomen and look for visible signs of gallbladder cancer.
  • Bile duct examination – This involves injecting a contrast dye into the bile duct, which is useful in advanced diagnostic imaging tests. This procedure allows the doctor to get a clear image of the gallbladder and the bile duct functioning.
  • Other imaging tests – CT (computerized tomography) scan of the chest and abdomen along with MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) tests and ultra-sonography of the liver can also be advised with PET (positron emission tomography) scan.

Using these diagnostic imaging tests, doctors are able to determine the stage of the gallbladder cancer, as follows:

  • Stage 1 – Cancer is within the gallbladder.
  • Stage 2 – Cancer has spread to the outer layers of the gallbladder and even beyond it.
  • Stage 3 – Cancer has spread to surrounding organs (liver, stomach, or small intestine) and also nearby lymph nodes.
  • Stage 4 – Cancer is extensively spread with large tumors in multiple nearby organs and other distant parts of the body.

The staging of gallbladder cancer is most important to determine the best-suited and advanced gallbladder cancer treatment for the particular case.

Types

Most gallbladder cancers develop in the glandular cells of the organ and are known as Adenocarcinoma.

Diagnosis

Gallbladder cancer can be easily diagnosed using:

  • Blood tests – These help to evaluate the functioning of the liver and check for additional signs and symptoms internally.
  • Imaging tests – Several advanced diagnostic imaging tests are used to determine the existence and spread of the gallbladder cancer, such as MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), ultrasound, and CT (computerized tomography) tests.

Treatment

The doctor will usually consider the stage of the gallbladder cancer, the patient’s age, and their overall health status to decide on the most suitable and advanced gallbladder cancer treatment for them. The main aim of any advanced gallbladder cancer treatment is to remove the cancer or to at least halt the progress of the disease using combinations of various cancer treatment techniques.

  • Surgery – Surgical removal of gallbladder cancer is ideal for early stages of the cancer. The surgery may require removing the complete cancer-affected gallbladder or to remove the entire cancerous gallbladder along with a small portion of the liver.
  • Chemotherapy – This advanced gallbladder cancer treatment uses specialized medicinal drugs to destroy the cancerous cells in the gallbladder.
  • Radiotherapy – This advanced gallbladder cancer treatment uses high-energy beams of particle radiation to destroy the cancerous cells by generating targeted heat.

Why Choose ALAAFIYAH CARE For Advanced Gallbladder Cancer Treatment?

Gallbladder cancer is one of the rare forms of cancer; however, early detection and efficient treatment are most important in such cases. ALAAFIYAH CARE has been providing extensive diagnostic and advanced gallbladder cancer treatments to patients abroad. ALAAFIYAH CARE connects each patient to the most high-tech and reliable cancer care hospitals in internationally popular destinations for the most affordable and advanced gallbladder cancer treatment.

What Is Deep Brain Stimulation?

Brain Stimulation is an innovative neurological treatment technique. It involves implanting tiny electrodes in specific areas of the brain to transmit electrical impulses to regulate abnormal neural impulses. Certain mental and physical disorders can be traced to abnormal neural impulse activity and chemical imbalance.

How Is Deep Brain Stimulation Treatment Performed?

Although the surgical approach may vary from surgeon to surgeon, the end goal of the surgery is to fix a device in the chest which is connected through small wires to four electrodes in the brain.

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A device similar to a pace-maker is used to control the intensity and frequency of the artificial electrical impulse in deep brain stimulation treatment method. This device is placed mostly under the collarbone, with tiny wires running under the skin to connect to the electrodes in the brain.

The surgeon will choose the trouble spots in the brain where abnormal neural activity is resulting in the symptoms or disorder. This is a local anaesthesia procedure where the patient is kept awake during the surgery to gauge the activeness of the brain functions.

Patients are usually required to rest in the hospital for at least 3 days after the deep brain stimulation device implanting surgery.

What Is Deep Brain Stimulation Useful For?

Deep Brain Stimulation technique is an ultra-modern neurological treatment method for various diseases and disorders, such as:

  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Slight tremors
  • Epilepsy
  • Dystonia
  • Chronic pain
  • Tourette syndrome
  • OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder)

The Deep Brain Stimulation technique also shows effective results in the treatment of addiction, dementia, depression, and rehabilitation after recovery from a stroke.

Deep Brain Stimulation treatment is mostly advised when a person suffering from movement disorders (including dystonia, OCD, Parkinson’s disease, etc.) does not find relief after treatment with medications.

Are There Any Risks Associated With Deep Brain Stimulation Treatment?

Although Deep Brain Stimulation is a minimally invasive surgery, there are still certain risks in rare cases, as seen in any form of surgical treatment.

Risks from surgery include stroke, bleeding, infection, nausea, breathing problems, seizures, and heart problems.

Surgical Risks:

  • Stroke
  • Bleeding
  • Infection
  • Nausea
  • Breathing problems
  • Seizures
  • Heart problems

Side Effects of Stimulation:

Once the device and electrodes are implanted, the surgeon will wait for several weeks before starting the device. This step requires searching for the ideal setting for the particular patient; this may initially produce certain side effects, such as:

  • Muscle tightness in arm or face
  • Numb/tingling sensation
  • Balance problems/vertigo
  • Speech issues
  • Unpredicted mood swings
  • Light headedness

These are seen in rare cases and mostly disappear as the ideal electrical stimulation frequency is discovered.

Why Choose ALAAFIYAH CARE For Deep Brain Stimulation Treatment?

ALAAFIYAH CARE is a leading global medical tourism service provider. ALAAFIYAH is renowned for providing efficient services with overall assistance to patients who wish to travel abroad for a wide variety of medical treatments.

ALAAFIYAH is associated with the largest network of global-class neurological healthcare institutes all around the world. These are all high-tech neurology surgery specialty hospitals located at popular international destinations.

ALAAFIYAH offers complete assistance to patients to travel abroad to the destination of their choice and get the best and most effective Deep Brain Stimulation treatment at the most cost-efficient price.

Lung Cancer

Lung Cancer. is a common type of cancer that affects the cells of the lungs. The lungs are two identical organs located in the chest that are responsible for processing the oxygen which is inhaled and converting it into carbon dioxide, which is the exhaled.

Lung Cancer today is amongst the leading fatal cancers all around the world. People who have a habit of excessive smoking of cigarettes are at more risk of developing lung cancer.

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Symptoms

Lung Cancer might not exhibit noticeable signs or symptoms in the initial stages. Most lung cancer signs and symptoms are noticed when the disease has advanced to an extensive state.

These are the commonly seen signs and symptoms of lung cancer:

  • Constant coughing
  • Changed chronic/smoker’s cough
  • Coughing up blood (even small amounts)
  • Angina (chest pain)
  • Shortness of breath
  • Wheezing
  • Hoarseness
  • Unwanted weight loss
  • Headache
  • Bone ache

Causes

These are the generally known causes that increase the risk of causing lung cancer:

  • Smoking – Smoking tobacco products has been determined to be the leading cause of lung cancer by numerous research and studies. Constant exposure to tobacco smoke has also been found to increase the risk of lung cancer in a person.
  • Radon exposure – Prolonged exposure to radon gas can also raise the risk of developing lung cancer in a person. Radon gas is emitted naturally from soil, water, and rocks due to the natural degradation of uranium in them. The radon gas eventually becomes a part of the breathable air. Unsafe levels of radon gas often develop in improperly ventilated buildings and homes.
  • Asbestos exposure/other carcinogens – Often, certain industries require a person to be exposed to asbestos and similar other carcinogenic agents (such as nickel, chromium, arsenic, etc) for longer periods of time. This causes the development of lung cancer in the person.
  • Heredity – Certain people can develop lung cancer due to an abnormality in their genes in which lung cancer can often become a hereditary disorder.

Stages

The lung cancer is classified into several stages according to the area it has spread (metastasized) to. CT scans, MRI scans, and PET tests are helpful in determining the extent of spread of the lung cancer, into and outside the affected lung.

  • Stage 1 – Cancer cells are limited to the lung only. Tumor size is normally less than 2 inches.
  • Stage 2 – Cancer has grown larger and is more than 2 inches, and the tumor may also have spread to nearby tissue (including chest wall, diaphragm, or the inner lining (pleura) of the lungs. Cancer at this stage may or may not affect nearby lymph nodes.
  • Stage 3 – Cancer has spread to nearby tissues and affected surrounding organs. The tumor is comparatively larger in size and affects even the lymph nodes significantly away from the cancer-affected lungs.
  • Stage 4 – Cancer is seen to have spread to the other lung and the nearby tissues and organs extensively.

Types

The lung cancers are divided into two major types according to the appearance of the cancer cells under close observation. The classification of the lung cancer into its proper type allows determining the best treatment options for the particular case.

  • Small cell lung cancer – Small cell lung cancer is most often seen developing in smokers who have a smoking habit. It is less common in non-smokers.
  • Non-small cell lung cancer – This is a term used to collectively describe numerous types of similarly characterized lung cancers. These may include large cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.

Diagnosis

  • Annual screening tests – These consist of a number of imaging diagnostic tests designed to screen for lung cancer efficiently. These annual tests are highly recommended for people with a higher risk for developing lung cancer, such as heavy smokers. The doctor performs a CT (computerized tomography) scan to check the lung cells for cancerous growth.
  • Imaging tests – X-rays, CT scans, etc., can help reveal the inner lining tissue of the lungs clearly and check for abnormal growths.
  • Sputum cytology – In case the cough is releasing sputum, a microscopic analysis of the sputum can help determine the presence of cancer cells in it.
  • Biopsy – The doctor will surgically remove a small portion of the suspected cancerous tissue to perform detailed analysis in a pathological laboratory.

Treatment

There are several ways and methods that lung cancers are treated. One of the main factors that determine the type of lung cancer treatment is the type and stage of lung cancer, along with other factors, such as the patient’s age, overall health status, underlying medical conditions, etc.

  • Surgery – In this, the surgeon will use several methods to remove the cancer-affected part of the lungs along with a margin of the surrounding healthy tissue. The surgeon may use wedge resection, segmental resection, lobotomy, or Pneumonectomy to perform the surgical treatment of lung cancer.
  • Chemotherapy – In this, the surgeon uses specially designed medicinal drugs to destroy the cancer cells. The drugs are administered intravenously (IV) or orally. A combination of such drugs is administered to disable the nutrition supply of the cancerous cells in the lungs in order to destroy them naturally. This therapy is often used to shrink (decrease) the size of the tumor in the lung for easier surgical removal.
  • Radiotherapy – Also known as radiation therapy, this treatment uses highly-precise and powerful beams of laser to target the cancer cells and destroy them by generating intense heat. This process is often used after surgical removal to ensure that every trace of the cancerous cells has been removed from the lung.
  • Targeted drug therapy – In this, the surgeon will use special medicinal drugs that are designed to target certain abnormalities in the cancer cells. This therapy is mostly used in combination with chemotherapy for optimum results.

Why Choose ALAAFIYAH CARE For Lung Cancer Treatment?

ALAAFIYAH CARE is the premium provider of world-class medical tourism services. ALAAFIYAH CARE is renowned for connecting patients with the best oncology hospital abroad and ensure high-quality lung cancer treatment. ALAAFIYAH CARE believes in providing complete assistance to patients from abroad in getting better lung cancer treatment at the affordable cost to the patient.

What Is Melanoma?

Melanoma is a serious form of skin cancer and is quite common today. Melanoma develops in the melanocytes, which are cells that produce melanin. Melanin is the natural pigment that gives tone and complexion to the skin. Melanoma can develop in the eyes and also rarely in the internal organs, such as the intestines.

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Signs and Symptoms of Melanoma

Melanoma develops almost anywhere on the body but is mostly seen affecting areas that are more exposed to the sun, including face, arms, legs, and back. Melanoma also develops in covered areas of the body, including the soles of feet, palms, and even the fingernail beds. These types of melanomas are mostly seen in people with a darker skin complexion.

These are the initial signs of melanoma:

  • Change in appearance of existing mole
  • Occurrence of new abnormal skin growth

Melanoma does not always develop in the form of a mole but is also seen in normal-seeming skin as well.

Identifying melanomas is comparatively easy if you know what to look for. These are some of the factors that help identify the cancerous nature of abnormal skin formations, such as moles.

Although most moles tend to be benign and superficial, similar moles are known to later develop into serious melanomas.

Identifying Melanoma

Check for the following points in the mole to check if it is a melanoma:

  • Asymmetrical shape
  • Irregular border
  • Color change
  • Large diameter
  • Evolution/developmental changes

Malignant (cancerous) moles can be of various appearances. At times, most of the above-mentioned signs can be seen in melanoma moles or they may show only one of the aspects of change in appearance.

Areas where melanomas develop are mostly on sun-exposed regions of skin; however, there are other places, such as between toes, on soles, palms, scalp, etc., where melanoma can develop too. These are also called as hidden melanomas.

These are the regions where hidden melanomas are generally seen:

  • Under the nails
  • In the mouth
  • Digestive tract
  • Urinary tract
  • Vagina
  • Eye

It is advisable to consult a doctor when any of the signs and symptoms of melanoma are seen for best and most effective treatment.

Causes of Melanoma

Melanomas are known to start when the melanocytes (melanin-producing cells) start to malfunction. Damage to the cellular DNA is known to result in abnormal growth of skin cells from it. The exact cause of damage to the cellular DNA of melanocytes is not yet known, but overexposure to sun or UV radiation is known to increase the risk of developing melanoma significantly.

How Melanoma is Diagnosed

There are several ways to determine the presence of melanoma as well as to determine the stage (level of development) of the melanoma.

  • Physical examination – This involves the doctor inspecting every part of the skin to check for visible signs of melanoma.
  • Biopsy – This is a minimally invasive surgical technique to remove a sample of the suspected melanoma tissue. In this, the surgeon will remove the complete (or part of) the suspected mole and send it for detailed analysis at the pathology laboratory.

Biopsy Techniques for Melanoma

There are several different techniques used in biopsy for melanoma, including:

  • Punch biopsy – This requires using a circular-bladed small surgical tool, very similar to a conventional punching machine, which helps to make a perfectly round incision around the mole. This helps to remove the suspected mole as well as the surrounding skin tissue.
  • Excision biopsy – The surgeon uses conventional surgery methods to remove the entire suspicious mole along with a margin of skin from the surrounding.
  • Incision biopsy – The surgeon will use more precision to remove only the abnormal-looking part of the suspected mole.

Staging of Melanoma

Staging of melanoma helps to determine the extent of the cancer. The doctor will check the following to determine the stage of the melanoma:

  • Thickness – The melanoma’s thickness is judged using a powerful microscope and using a micrometer to measure it.
  • Spread – The extent of spread of melanoma to nearby lymph nodes is checked.

How is Melanoma Treated?

Melanoma is treated using several different methods. The exact type of melanoma treatment mainly depends on the size and the extent (stage) of the cancer. The doctor will also consider the patient’s age and overall health in order to choose the best treatment method.

The treatment for early-stage melanoma is done with surgery. The surgeon will peel off very thin payers of the affected skin for biopsy or remove the entire melanoma along with a margin from the surrounding healthy tissue.

For metastatic melanoma, that has spread to other organs there are several different treatment techniques, such as:

Surgery for Lymph Node Removal

In case the melanoma is seen to affect the nearby lymph node, then the surgeon will choose to remove the affected lymph nodes. This is often combined with another pre-surgical or post-surgical treatment.

  • Chemotherapy: This uses specially designed drugs to destroy the cancer cells. Chemotherapy drugs are administered using oral or intravenous, as well as a combination of both, techniques.
  • Isolated Limb Perfusion: This is usually given in an isolated limb perfusion technique when the melanoma is seen affecting a specific part of the body, such as the arm or leg. This helps restrict the effects of the drugs to the affected area only.
  • Radiotherapy: Radiation therapy uses high-energy beams of radiation (x-rays, etc) particles to target the cancerous cells precisely. Radiotherapy is often used in combination with surgical cancer treatment to shrink the size of the cancerous tissue, which can be then easily removed with surgery.
  • Biological Therapy: This is an immune-boosting technique to fight cancer cells naturally. Specially designed medicinal drugs are used in this to strengthen the immune system and fight the melanoma.
  • Targeted Therapy: This melanoma treatment therapy uses special medicinal drugs that are designed to target the weakness of the cancer cells. Advanced melanoma can be effectively treated using expert targeted therapy.

Why Choose ALAAFIYAH CARE For Melanoma Treatment?

ALAAFIYAH CARE is the renowned medical tourism company in the world. ALAAFIYAH is associated from a long time with numerous advanced oncology specialty hospitals. This forms a global network of the best and most reliable cancer-specialty healthcare centres for melanoma treatment through ALAAFIYAH CARE. ALAAFIYAH ensures that each patient gets the best and melanoma treatment abroad at the hands of the most expert cancer specialists.

What Is Ovarian Cancer?

Ovarian cancer is the abnormal growth of tissue cells covering the ovaries. Ovarian cancer originates in the ovaries and can then spread to surrounding parts swiftly. This is one of the more prevalent types of cancer in women and is mostly seen developing in post-menopausal women

Ovarian cancer can affect cell growth in one or both the ovaries. The ovaries are two small glands on both sides of the uterus. Ovaries produce the female sex hormones, store and release the eggs (ova).

Ovarian cancer can be effectively treated if detected at an early stage.

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Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer

In certain cases, ovarian cancer displays early signs, such as:

  • Pelvic/abdominal pain
  • Frequent bloating
  • Eating problems
  • Urinary problems – Frequent/urgent urination

The other common symptoms seen for ovarian cancer include:

  • Regular indigestion
  • Constant fatigue
  • Chronic backache
  • Painful intercourse
  • Abnormal changes in menstrual cycle
  • Frequent constipation

How is Ovarian Cancer Diagnosed?

These are the common diagnostic tests and examinations that are helpful in detection, diagnosing, and staging of ovarian cancer:

  • Physical Examination: This includes a pelvic examination and a Pap test. The physical pelvic examination is helpful in finding any abnormal growths (lumps) in the ovaries. The doctor may also advise a recto-vaginal exam to check the internal pelvic organs for cancerous growths.
  • Biopsy: The doctor will remove a small piece of the suspected ovary through minimally invasive surgical method (laparotomy). The removed sample of the ovary tissue is sent to a pathological laboratory for a detailed analysis.
  • CA-125: The Cancer Antigen 125 (CA-125) level test is helpful to check for a certain protein which is found over the cancerous ovarian cells.
  • Pelvic/Trans-Vaginal Ultrasound: This ultrasound imaging technique is used to check for abnormal lumps in the ovary.
  • Imaging Diagnostic Tests: Other imaging diagnostic tests, such as MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) test and CT (Computerized Tomography) scan are useful for detailed imaging of the internal pelvic region and check for signs of abnormal ovarian growths.

How is Ovarian Cancer Treated?

There are several types of treatments for ovarian cancer. The doctor will decide on the most effective ovarian cancer treatment for the individual case depending on various factors, such as age, health status, stage, and type of ovarian cancer.

These are the most common ovarian cancer treatment methods that are effective in treating the cancer of the ovaries and also help in preventing it from recurring later on in life:

Chemotherapy: is the medicinal treatment for ovarian cancer. Chemotherapy is useful in reducing the size of the tumor in the ovaries. This treatment also slows down the growth rate of the cancerous cells.

Chemotherapy is mostly advised after a surgical treatment, where the surgeon is not able to remove the cancerous tissue completely using surgical methods alone. Chemotherapy helps to target the blood source of the cancerous cell and shrink its size significantly. This treatment is also advised before a surgical treatment for ovarian cancer to shrink a large-sized ovarian tumor so that it can be safely removed afterward using surgical methods.

Chemotherapy medications can be administered using:
  • Oral method (through the mouth)
  • IV (Intravenous) method (through a tube connected to a vein)
  • IP (Intra-peritoneal) method (through a thin tube inserted in the body)

Surgical: Surgical treatment is considered to be the main treatment method for ovarian cancer.

There are several surgical procedures that are performed (individually/combined) that are helpful in treating ovarian cancer effectively, such as:

  • Total Hysterectomy – This surgical procedure is used to remove the cancer-affected cervix and the uterus.
  • Unilateral Salpingo-Oopherectomy – This surgical procedure is used to remove one ovary and fallopian tube that have been affected.
  • Bilateral Salpingo-Oopherectomy – This surgical procedure is used to remove both the ovaries and fallopian tubes.
  • Omentectomy – This surgical treatment is used to remove the omentum (fatty tissue attached to abdominal organs) when the cancer spreads to other abdominal organs.

Radiotherapy: Radiation therapy for treating ovarian cancer involves targeting the cancerous ovarian cells with high-energy radiation. These particle waves are able to disrupt the cancer growth fast and destroy the cancerous cells within the ovaries.

Why to choose ALAAFIYAH CARE for Treatment of Ovarian Cancer?

ALAAFIYAH CARE is the prime provider of world-class medical tourism all over the globe. ALAAFIYAH has association with a wide network of high-standard hospitals and healthcare facilities across the globe that specializes in women’s health and cancer. ALAAFIYAH provides all-round assistance for patients to travel abroad to various international destinations, such as Thailand, India, Malaysia, US, UK, etc for effective ovarian cancer treatment at affordable cost.

What Is Cancer Radiation Treatment?

Radiation Therapy treatment is a form of therapy for cancer treatment that uses x-rays as a means of damaging the DNA of malignant tumor cells. It is also known as “Radiotherapy” and “Radiation Oncology”.

Most common types of cancer respond positively to radiation therapy. It is used for many different types of cancers. Radiation Therapy will damage normal cells in the process of eradicating cancer cells. However, most normal cells will recover quickly from the treatment. The main goal of radiotherapy is to damage as many cancer cells as possible while minimizing damage to normal cells.

Please refer to the following pages for more information about specific cancer radiation treatments:

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  • Brain Cancer Radiation Treatment
  • Liver Cancer Radiation Treatment
  • Lung Cancer Radiation Treatment
  • Pancreas Cancer Radiation Treatment
  • Spine Cancer Radiation Treatment

Radiation Therapy may be used prior to surgery in order to shrink tumors. It can also be used after surgeries to prevent a relapse of cancer cells. Radiation therapy has many applications and may be used either separately or in combination with other types of therapy such as hormone therapy or chemotherapy. For some types of tumors, it may be the only type of treatment needed.

Type of Radiation Therapy

  • CyberKnife: CyberKnife is the world’s first whole-body robotic radiosurgery system that can be used to treat multiple cancerous and non-cancerous conditions, namely prostate cancer, brain cancer, lung cancer, spine cancer, trigeminal neuralgia, etc. The radiation is delivered from multiple angles precisely to kill the cancer cells while sparing the surrounding healthy tissues. Through its real-time imaging feature, CyberKnife can track small changes in the tumor location, which is caused due to breathing or other bodily movements and adjust the radiation delivery accordingly.
  • Tomotherapy H: Tomotherapy H is an advanced image-guided radiation delivery system. It combines the benefits of computed tomography (CT scan) and linear accelerator. The real-time imaging guidance helps specialists plan the treatment accurately and deliver the high-dose radiation precisely to the target area. Tomotherapy H is capable of delivering up to 1000 beams of radiation traveling in straight lines or tangents from different directions and successfully destroying cancer cells. It is a non-invasive procedure, therefore there is no blood loss, long hospital stays, or prolonged recovery. Patients can continue with their day-to-day activities as they undergo their treatment.
  • TrueBeam: The TrueBeam is another unique radiation therapy system, which precisely delivers the radiation to destroy the tumor cells throughout the body while minimizing the damage to the surrounding healthy tissues. TrueBeam’s advanced imaging facility and treatment models allow the specialists to customize radiation delivery for each cancer case. It synchronizes radiation delivery with the imaging and thereby adjusts radiation delivery according to the smallest movement of the patient, including breathing. TrueBeam can deliver high dose radiation in a shorter duration, and this allows the specialists to shorten the overall treatment duration for the patients.
  • Versa HD: Versa HD is an all-in-one radiation delivery system, which delivers radiation with advanced stereotactic precision. Versa HD comes with sophisticated conformal beam-shaping technology and high dose rate mode delivery, which improves the precision and facilitates the speed necessary to deliver stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) techniques, which require superior accuracy in tumor targeting and protecting the internal organs.
  • Agility Synergy: The Agility Synergy is a linear accelerator, which allows specialists to deliver extremely accurate, image-guided adaptive radiotherapy safely, in very few sessions. Agility Synergy can treat cancer present in any part of the body with greater precision along with non-cancerous medical conditions like trigeminal neuralgia, meningioma, acoustic neuroma, etc.
  • Artiste with CT: The Artiste with CT is Asia’s first Image-Guided Radiation Therapy machine with CT-on-rails. Artiste has a significant role in making cancer treatment more precise while protecting the surrounding healthy tissues and having minimal side-effects. It carefully delivers the radiation beam wherein the target area receives the maximum dose while the healthy tissues receive less intense radiation. This positively impacts the treatment response and recovery among cancer patients.
  • Brachytherapy: Brachytherapy or internal beam radiation therapy allows specialists to treat cancers by placing a radiation source inside or very close to the tumor. Radiation emitted by this source kills the cancer cells over time. This helps in delivering high-dose radiation to the target while sparing the healthy tissues surrounding the tumor. Brachytherapy is used to treat a wide range of cancers, namely prostate cancer, bladder cancer, cervical cancer, vaginal cancer, rectum cancer, head & neck cancer, skin cancer, breast cancer, gallbladder cancer, uterine cancer, and eye cancer.
  • Hyperthermia: Hyperthermia is a treatment approach, where the cancer cells are exposed to heat up to 42°C. Hyperthermia is always used in combination with radiation therapy or anti-cancer drugs. Hyperthermia is helpful in the treatment of tumors on the skin, tumors of the head & neck region that may have spread to the lymph nodes, etc.

How Does Cancer Radiation Treatment Work?

Radiation Therapy is generally applied directly to a tumor. For this reason, it is considered to be a “localize” therapy. This means that it treats only a specific portion of the body. This is different from “systemic” types of therapies that travel throughout the entire body (such as chemotherapy).

During the procedure, the high-energy rays are aimed at the tumor from several different angles. This serves the purpose of avoiding damage to normal cells while providing a larger dose to the actual tumor. It also helps in allowing the rays to pass through the various layers of tissue and organs without damaging them.

Sometimes the radiation field may encompass small portions of normal tissue or other systems that are involved, such as surrounding lymph nodes. This is because the position of the tumor can sometimes be altered by many factors.

It is important that the entire malignant growth be treated with the rays. These forms of cancer radiation treatment are usually administered once or twice daily.

What are the Side Effects of Cancer Radiation Treatment?

Since radiation therapy inevitably results in damage to healthy cells along with the malignant growths, it can have undesirable side effects.

Depending on the location of the tumor, these may include: alopecia (hair loss), digestive problems, diarrhea, lung damage, urinary problems, changes in sexual function, and other radiation-associated effects.

Recovery Time is usually swift, as external beam radiation is usually an outpatient procedure.

Other forms of radiotherapy such as internal radiation therapy may require a few days of hospitalization after the procedure is completed. Side effects can last anywhere from weeks to months. This is considered to be much shorter than other forms of treatment such as chemotherapy.

ALAAFIYAH CARE is the prime provider of world-class medical tourism all over the globe. ALAAFIYAH has association with a wide network of high-standard hospitals and healthcare facilities across the globe that specializes in Oncology.

Our Hospitals house state-of-the-art technologies that help our specialists in achieving the best clinical outcomes

ALAAFIYAH provides all-round assistance for patients to travel abroad to various international destinations, such as Thailand, India, Malaysia, US, UK, etc. for effective ovarian cancer treatment at affordable cost.

What Is T-Cell Leukemia?

T-Cell Leukemia is also called as ‘chronic t-cell lymphocytic leukemia’. It is a type of CLL (or Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia) which affects the white blood cells (WBC) that are responsible for strengthening the immune system to fight against infection.

What Are The Types Of T-Cell Leukemia?

These are the various four types of T-Cell Leukemia:

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LGLL (Large Granular Lymphocytic Leukemia) – This is a slow-growing type of T-cell leukemia which is found to be more prominent in women than in men. The exact cause for this blood cancer is not known.

T-PLL (T-cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia) – This is a dangerous form of T-cell leukemia and is found to affect and spread comparatively faster. This T-cell leukemia type affects mainly adults and is more common in senior males than females. This mostly affects the skin quality.

ATLL (Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma) – This T-cell leukemia is further sub-divided as adult, acute, chronic, and smoldering T-cell lymphoma. This is a cancer of the lymphatic system and is identified by their specific features.

Sezary Syndrome – This is a form of mycosis fungoides which mainly affects the skin. This is normally a slow-growing type of T-cell leukemia and is usually diagnosed by the increasing numbers of lymphoma cells in the blood, which is often accompanied by the reddening of the skin.

Signs and Symptoms Of T-Cell Leukemia

At times, a case of T-Cell Leukemia might not show any signs, otherwise, there are several commonly seen signs and symptoms that can be used to identify T-Cell Leukemia, such as:

  • Frequent infections
  • Unexplained chills/fever
  • Bleeding easily
  • Easy bruising
  • Constant fatigue
  • Constant pain in the left abdominal region
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Skin lesions
  • Rash
  • Frequent urination
  • Constipation
  • Itching of skin
  • Feeling full with comparatively less diet

How is T-Cell Leukemia Diagnosed?

Initially, the doctor will perform a complete physical examination and check for the signs and symptoms as well as the medical history.

These are the other diagnostic tests that help the doctor determine the type of leukemia as well as the ideal treatment for it:

  • Blood tests – Extensive range of blood testing is available, such as CBC (complete blood count) in which the level and condition of the various types of blood cells can be estimated.
  • Biopsy/Bone Marrow Aspiration – Both these procedures are performed simultaneously to examine the bone marrow in detail. Bone marrow aspiration involves removing the liquid part of the bone marrow using a thin long needle. A biopsy involves removing a small part of the bone for detailed analysis at the pathology laboratory.
  • Skin biopsy – This involves surgically removing a small portion of the affected skin to be examined in detail in a pathology laboratory.
  • CT (computerized tomography) scan – This advanced imaging diagnostic testing helps the surgeon get a 3D image of the affected body part without the need for intrusive methods.

How is T-Cell Leukemia Treated?

There are various ways to effectively treat the different types of T-Cell Leukemia.

These are the various types of treatments for T-Cell Leukemia:

Chemotherapy: This involves using a combination of special medicinal drugs. These are designed to target the cancerous cells involved. The chemotherapy treatment can be administered as oral medications, injections, or IV tubes.

Immunotherapy: Also known as biologic therapy, it aims to boost the body’s natural immune system to fight cancerous leukemia cells in the blood. It uses a combination of natural and artificial substances to increase the strength of the patient’s own immune system.

Targeted Therapy: This accurate treatment targets the cancer’s genes and the supportive environment that helps it grow. It blocks the supply of protein and nutrients to the cancerous cells to destroy them completely.

Radiotherapy: This treatment uses high-energy beams of x-rays (or other particles) to target and destroy leukemia cells in the blood. It can be performed as external-beam radiation therapy or internal radiation therapy (brachytherapy).

Surgery: Surgical treatment of T-Cell Leukemia mainly involves a splenectomy, in which the surgeon removes the white blood cell-producing spleen to stop the growth of cancerous cells produced by it.

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Testicular Cancer

Testicular Cancer develops in the testicles (also called as the testes) which is located inside the Scrotum, underneath the penis. The testicles are responsible for producing the male sex hormones and sperm necessary for reproduction.

Testicular cancer is one of the rare forms of cancer but is mostly seen in males between the ages of 15 to 35 years. Testicular cancer can be easily treated in its various stages using advanced testicular cancer treatment methods.

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Symptoms

These are the commonly seen signs and symptoms of testicular cancer:

  • Lump/swelling of any testicle
  • Heavy feeling in the scrotum
  • Constant and dull abdominal/groin pain
  • Frequent fluid accumulation in scrotum
  • Pain/discomfort in scrotum/testicle
  • Enlarged/tender breast region
  • Backache

Testicular cancer is seen mostly affecting only one of the two testicles.

Causes

Although the exact cause for the initial development of testicular cancer is not yet known, the doctors have determined that the cancer causes the cells of the testicles to produce at an abnormal rate.

Most testicular cancers begin in the germ cells (immature-sperm producing cells) which results in abnormally fast and uncontrolled division of these germ cells.

Survival Rates

The testicular cancer is one of the best treated cancers, and the outlook after treatment is most positive and advantageous in such cases.

Stages

The stage of testicular cancer is determined according to the extent of its spread (metastasize) to outside the testicles and on to the surrounding healthy parts and organs of the body.

The doctor will use blood tests and diagnostic imaging tests (CT scan) to determine the spread of the cancer from the testicles.

  • Stage 1 – Cancer is in the testicle only
  • Stage 2 – Cancer has spread to nearby abdominal lymph nodes
  • Stage 3 – Cancer has spread to other parts of the body

Types

The testicular cancer is classified into different types according to the type of cells the cancer has affected.

  • Seminomas – This has become the most common type of testicular cancer and begins in the germ cells.
  • Non-seminomas – This also begins in the germs cells and includes embryonal carcinomas, teratomas, choriocarcinomas, and yolk sac tumors.
  • Leydig cell tumor – This is a rare form of testicular cancer.
  • Sertoli cell tumor – This is another rare form of testicular cancer.
  • Lymphoma – This is also seen in general affecting a marginal number of the male population.

Diagnosis

These are the diagnostic tests advised by doctors to determine the presence of testicular cancer:

  • Ultrasound – An ultrasound test uses high-frequency sound waves to give a clear image of the inside of the testicle.
  • Blood tests – These are useful to determine the level of tumor markers in the body.
  • Radical inguinal orchiectomy – This surgical test removing the testicle for detailed analysis.

Treatment

There are several methods of testicular cancer treatments available, such as:

  • Surgery – Radical inguinal orchiectomy is a surgical testicular cancer treatment involving removal of the cancer-affected testicle completely. Another surgical treatment for testicular cancer involves removing the nearby lymph nodes as well to prevent recurring of the cancer.
  • Radiotherapy – This testicular cancer treatment involves aiming high-energy particle rays at the cancer-affected testicle and destroying the cancerous cells inside using the intense heat generated.
  • Chemotherapy – This testicular cancer treatment involves using special drugs to target the source of nourishment of the cancer cells and destroying them by blocking it.

The exact type of testicular cancer treatment will mainly depend on the type and stage of testicular cancer along with the surgeon’s expertise and the choice of the patient.

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What Is Breast Cancer?

Breast Cancer is the cancerous tissue that develops in a woman’s breasts. Breast cancer causes the breast tissue cells to become cancerous and multiply at an abnormally fast rate. This mostly results in the formation of a tumour (hard cancerous mass) in the breast which can be distinctly felt.

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Signs and Symptoms of Breast Cancer

There are several common and some distinct signs that are seen when breast cancer develops.

  • Lump in breast
  • Change in size/shape/appearance of breast
  • Change/new dimple on breast skin
  • Recently inverted nipple
  • Peeling/flaking of skin around nipple (areola)
  • Redness over breast skin

Causes of Breast Cancers?

The cause for the development of Breast Cancer is yet unknown however, when the cancer affects the breast it results in abnormal development of breast tissue cells. The cancer-affected cells in the breast begin to multiply faster and uncontrolled which then begin to form lumps (tumorous growths). Breast cancer is also known to spread (metastasize) to the other surrounding tissue and organs, including the lymph nodes.

Breast Cancer is mostly seen beginning in the tissue cells of the milk-producing ducts (also known as invasive ductal carcinoma) or it may begin in the lobules (invasive lobular carcinoma) as well as any other part of the breast.

How is Breast Cancer Diagnosed?

Breast cancer is treated successfully when it is diagnosed sooner and treated accordingly. These are some of the best and most common diagnosis tests for detecting breast cancer:

Breast examination – This is a physical examination of the breasts that lets the doctor check the breast tissue for lumps. The doctor will check the breasts and the lymph nodes in the armpit for abnormalities.

Mammogram – This is an x-ray imaging test for the breasts. These are very useful in seeing any abnormal growth in the breast tissue.

Breast ultrasound – Ultrasound test uses high-frequency sound waves to produce detailed of the internal structure within the breast. This test will effectively highlight any type of abnormal lump or mass in the breast.

Biopsy – The surgeon will use minimally invasive surgical method to remove a small portion of the suspected cancerous tissue from within the breast. This breast tissue sample is then sent to a pathology laboratory for detailed analysis.

Breast MRI – The breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an advanced diagnostic imaging test. It uses powerful magnets and radio waves to create a significantly detailed cross-sectional image of the breast tissue. A contrast dye is often injected before the breast MRI to help highlight any abnormality in the breast tissue.

These tests help in diagnosing breast cancer. If breast cancer is found in a person, then the doctor will advise one of these tests to stage the breast cancer:

  • Blood test – A CBC (complete blood count) test is most useful in determining the stage of breast cancer.
  • Advanced mammogram
  • Breast MRI
  • Breast CT (computerized tomography) scan
  • Breast PET (positron emission tomography) scan

The staging process helps the doctor to determine the extent of growth of the breast cancer and this in turn helps to determine the best-suited breast cancer treatment for the particular case.

How is Breast Cancer Treated?

There are various different methods for treatment of breast cancer. The type of breast cancer treatment mainly depends on several factors, such as the stage of breast cancer, its size, are of affecting along with the patient’s age, overall heath level, etc which the doctor will consider.

These are the various types of breast cancer treatments:

Surgery:-

Surgical removal of breast cancer is one of the most common and effective treatment methods. In this, there are sub-types of surgical processes that are performed, including:

  • Lumpectomy – This is a selective breast cancer surgery treatment for smaller sized breast tumors. The surgeon will use a wide local excision method to remove the cancerous tissue as well as a small margin from the surrounding healthy tissue as well to prevent chances of the cancer from recurring.
  • Mastectomy – This is one of the major surgeries for breast cancers. It involves removing the entire breast tissue, including the lobules, fatty tissue, milk ducts, nipple, areola as well as some portion of the skin.
  • Sentinel node biopsy – This surgical treatment of breast cancer is helpful in determining if the cancer has spread to the surrounding lymph nodes. The surgeon will remove a few of the closest-situated lymph nodes near the breast to check for cancerous cells or drainage from the tumor.
  • Axillary lymph node dissection – In case the surgeon finds cancer cells in the sentinel lymph nodes, the additional lymph nodes near the armpit might also need to be removed surgically.
  • Contra lateral prophylactic mastectomy – This surgery involves removing both the breast tissues completely even if the cancer is found to be affecting one of the breasts. This is done to prevent the risk of the cancer recurring in the affected breast and the cancer from spreading to the other healthy breast tissue.

Radiotherapy:

Radiotherapy, also known as radiation therapy, is a breast cancer treatment method involving the use of high-energy x-rays (or protons) to target and destroy the cancer cells in the breast tissue.

Radiotherapy can be done as an external procedure or the surgeon might use minimally invasive surgical method to insert a small radioactive device into the breast (brachytherapy) for closer access in giving an effective radiation dose to the cancerous breast tissue cells.

This is often used in combination with a surgical breast cancer treatment in case the surgery is not able to remove the entire cancerous tissue.

Chemotherapy:

Chemotherapy treatment for breast cancer involves using a combination of specially designed medicinal drugs that are aimed to destroy the cancerous cells in the breast. This treatment method is also used before treating a large sized breast tumor. The medicinal drugs are effective in reducing the size of the large cancerous tumor in the breast which can then be safely removed using surgical methods.

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What Is Prostate Cancer?

Prostate Cancer is a common cancer seen in men. Prostate cancer affects the prostate gland. This is a small gland which is located in the lower back. The prostate gland is responsible for producing the seminal fluid which is vital to nourish and transport the sperm.

Usually, the prostate cancer may develop in the prostate gland slowly without spreading the infection outside the gland. This is often a benign prostate cancer that can be treated quite easily comparatively.

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However, other types of prostate cancers are seen to be more aggressive and affect the prostate gland and then start to spread to the surrounding healthy tissues and organs as well.

Prostate cancer can be treated more effectively when it is detected in its earlier stages.

Signs & Symptoms of Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer might not exhibit any signs and symptoms in its early stages. However, as the cancer develops there might be visible signs and symptoms, such as:

  • Decreased urine force
  • Trouble urinating
  • Blood in semen
  • Pelvic pain or discomfort
  • Bone ache
  • Erectile dysfunction

It is highly advised to consult an experienced oncologist in case any of these signs and symptoms is noticed.

Causes Prostate Cancer?

Although the exact cause for the initiation of prostate cancer is not yet known the doctors identify the mutation of the abnormal cell’s DNA to be the result in the uncontrolled growth of the affected cells and form the cancerous tissue (tumor) in the prostate. This abnormal mass of cells (tumor) can also spread (metastasize) to the surrounding healthy tissues and cause the cells to mutate.

Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer

Doctors advise men over 50 to have regular annual or bi-annual screenings for prostate cancer. As early detection can help treat prostate cancer effectively regular screening will help identify any possible cancer risks and eliminate them beforehand.

The screening tests for prostate cancer may include:

DRE (Digital rectal exam) – This involves a physical examination of the patient’s rectum by the doctor using a gloved and lubricated finger. This helps the doctor identify any abnormalities in the size and shape of the gland.

PSA (Prostate specific antigen) – This involves taking a blood sample from the arm to analyze for PSA, which is naturally produced by the prostate gland. An abnormal level of PSA in the blood will indicate towards an abnormality in the prostate gland.

To diagnose prostate gland, the doctor will perform the following diagnostic tests:

Ultrasound – This test allows the doctor to get a clear image of the inside of the rectum and the prostate gland using a trans-rectal ultrasound probe.

Prostate biopsy – This involves removing a sample of the suspected cancer tissue using minimally invasive methods. This tissue sample is then analyzed in detail in a pathology laboratory to determine the presence of cancerous cells. The biopsy will also help to determine the staging (severity) of the prostate cancer, which helps determine the best-suited treatment method for the particular case.

Staging is also done by a series of other diagnostic tests, including:

Ultrasound

Bone scan

CT (computerized tomography) scan

MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan

PET (positron emission tomography) test

Treatment of Prostate Cancer

The treatment of prostate cancer mainly depends on the rate of growth (malignancy) of the cancer as well as the extent of its spread (metastasizing). The overall health status will also help decide the best-suited treatment for the particular case.

Although, in the early stages of prostate cancer as well as many cases of smaller prostate cancer, the cancer is mostly benign and does not pose a threat right away. At times, the cancer recedes and disappears on its own. Active surveillance may be advised in such cases, which will involve regular blood tests and rectal exams.

Radiation Therapy:

Radiation therapy (radiotherapy) uses powerful beams of particles to target and destroy the cancerous cells effectively. This treatment is administered in two different ways:

External beam radiation – This involves using a large machine to direct the particle rays on to the body from outside. These are targeted on the prostate cancer and help destroy the cells with the heat generated.

Brachytherapy – This is an internal prostate cancer radiotherapy treatment technique. It involves inserting a small (rice-sized) radioactive seed in the prostate tissue using minimally invasive methods. This seed is programmed to give out precise dosage of radiation right into the prostate cancer tissue.

Hormone therapy:

This therapy involves administering special drugs that are used to control the production of testosterone in the body. Lack of testosterone is known to affect the nutritional supply of the prostate cancer cells and eventually destroy them.

Surgery:

Surgical removal of prostate cancer involves radical prostatectomy. In this, the surgeon will use varying techniques and methods to remove the cancer-affected prostate gland in a safe manner. The surgeon may use advanced robotic-assisted surgery in order to reduce recovery time and get more effective results.

Cryotherapy:

This treatment involves freezing the cancerous prostate cancer tissue using super-cooled substances. Thin long needles are used to inject the prostate cancer with the freezing agent. A second injection delivers a heating agent which allows the frozen cells to thaw. This process helps kill off the cancer cells effectively.

Chemotherapy:

This involves administering specialized drugs to fight the cancer cells in the prostate gland. The drugs may be administered using injection, IVs or as oral dosage.

Biological therapy:

Also known as immunotherapy, this prostate cancer treatment method involves administering special medicines that strengthen the body’s immune system and help fight the cancer cells naturally.

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